1.A.2.a Iron and Steel

Last updated on 10 Dec 2013 11:53 (cf. Authors)


Short description

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Source for (by1)
1.A.2.a Iron and Steel T2 NS NOx (T)

In 2011, a total of 30.1 million t of raw steel was produced in six integrated steelworks. Electrical steel production amounted to another 14.2 million t.

The structural elements of this category are sinter production, hot metal production, steel production, hot rolling, iron and steel casting.
Category 1.A.2.a Iron and Steel is a trend key category for NOx.


Activity data

Data source of the fuel consumption for iron and steel casting is the statistic for the manufacturing sector; Statistik 060 - Energieverwendung des produzierenden Gewerbes (Energy use in the manufacturing sector; DESTATIS), reporting number 27.21, 27.51 and 27.52. Fuel consumption data for the hot metal production as well as the production of sinter and hot rolling are collected by the steel trade association (WV Stahl) in continuation of the former National Statistic: Fachserie 4, Reihe 8.1.

Emission factors

The emission factors used for the years 1990 - 1994 were taken from the report on the research project "Ermittlung und Evaluierung von Emissionsfaktoren für Feuerungsanlagen in Deutschland für die Jahre 1995, 2000 und 2010" (Determination and evaluation of emission factors for combustion systems in Germany for the years 1995, 2000 and 2010"; RENTZ et al, 2002). Starting from 1995 new emission factors for iron and steel were determined, based on real emission data from the installations concerned. (1995 - 2001: own calculations by UBA; EF for 2008 by a research project by the steel industry´s research institut BSI.
In category 1.A.2.a Iron and Steel only emissions from power plants and steam boiler of the steel industry are reported. Basically all industrial power plants and steam boiler are reported in source category 1.A.2.fi Other since the emission behaviour is comparable. The reason for the different structure of 1.A.2.a are the requirements of the UNFCCC Guidelines and the resulting review proceedings. Insofar it´s more sensible to report all emissions from blast furnace fired power plants and steam boiler in Source category 1.A.2.a to avoid notes regarding CO2 IEFs.
All process and energy related emissions from the production areas of sinter, rolled steel, iron and steel casting, electric steel and pig iron (blast furnace including the cowper) are reported under category 2.C.1, since it´s not possible to separate combustion from other process emissions. Insofar most pollutant emissions are reported under 2.C.1.

Trend discussion for Key Sources

NFR 1.A.2.a - Iron and Steel is key source by trend for NOx.


Recalculations were necessary for the latest reference year (2010) due to the availability of the National Energy Balance. Germany has a federal structure which causes a time lack of the National Energy Balance. Therefore recalculations are always necessary.

For pollutant specific information on qualitative and quantitative impacts on 1990 and 2010 emission estimates see chapter 11. Recalculations.

Planned improvements

Currently no source specific improvements are planned.

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