2.G Handling of Bulk Products

Last updated on 10 Dec 2013 11:53 (cf. Authors)

Short description

Under category 2.G - Handling of Bulk Products dust emissions from bulk material handling (loading and unloading) including agricultural bulk materials offsite the fields are reported. Emissions from quarrying and mining of minerals and from point source emissions are excluded.


All emissions are calculated using a tier1 method taking into account detailed data on handled materials and products.
Here, detailed calculations start based on statistical data starts with 1997. For 1990 to 1996, only simplified estimates without a differentiation of handled materials and products exist.

Activity data

Official statistics are of limited use in determining handling of bulk products. There are only transport statistics available providing the amounts of several transported materials.

During a research project (see EFs below), activity data was derived from this statistical data for all years until 2009. But due to a complex and detailed revision of the named transport statistics, AD as of 2010 could no longer be derived from these statistics properly but had to be extrapolated based on growth information for amounts of transported bulk materials compared to former years.

For estimating the amount of annualy moved bulk materials, statistical data provided by the Destatis and KBA are used.
These primary activity data (PAD) include the amounts imported and exported goods as well as goods transported only within Germany.

As Germany reports emissions from the loading and unloading of bulk materials, these amounts have to be calculated from the amounts of transported goods:

\begin{gather} PAD_\text{ material i} = PAD_\text{ total import material i} + PAD_\text{ total export material i} + 2 \cdot PAD_\text{ total domestic transport material i} \end{gather}

PAD import = amounts of imported goods
PAD export = amounts of exported goods
, and
PAD domestic = amounts of goods transported only within Germany

As the basic statistics provide only total amounts of imported, eported and domestically transported dry goods without any distinction into bulk and packed goods, the shares of bulk goods had to be estimated via expert judgement during the workshop mentioned above.

During this workshop, the gathered experts, for comparable kinds of dry bulk material, discussed specific shares displaying which part of the total amount of dry material i loaded and/or unloaded within Germany might be transported as bulk material thus causing PM emissions.

So the AD used for estimating specific PM emissions for every bulk material is calculated as a specific share s of the amount of this material i loaded and/or unloaded within Germany:

\begin{gather} AD_\text{ bulk material i} = PAD_\text{ material i} \cdot s_\text{ bulk share material i} \end{gather}

Emission factors

Emission factors are based on the methodology according VDI guidelines 3790. The values used here originate from a research project taking into account information of an expert panel of industry and administration. For details see the project report (German version only).

Ratio TSP : PM10 : PM2.5

The shares of PM10 and PM2.5 of the entire amounts of emitted TSP have been set to fixed values used for the entire time series.


  • TSP = 100%,
  • 50% of TSP are =< 10 µm. Therefore, the EF(PM10) are assumed as 1/2 of the corresponding EF(TSP), and
  • 10% of TSP are =< 2.5 µm. Therefore, the EF(PM2.5) are assumed as 1/10 of the corresponding EF(TSP).

The ratios of TSP, PM10, and PM2.5,, were also discussed in the research project mentioned above, but without generating any new data. Nonetheless, the ratios might be to low at the moment and will be checked furthermore.

Due to efforts to prevent particle emissions, the EF time series for all three fractions of particulate matter show a falling trend.

Emission factors for estimating 2011 emissions

For this submission, most important EF (out of more than fifty) were the following:

Table: Selection of EFs used for 2011 emissions estimates of main bulk goods, [g/t]

Bulk good TSP PM10 PM2.5
Cement 4.0 2.0 0.4
Crops - barley, rye, wheat 38.0 19.0 3.8
Crops - oats, rice 15.0 7.5 1.5
Hard coal 27.0 13.5 2.7
Hard coal briquettes 24.0 12.0 2.4
Iron ore 48.0 24.0 4.8
Iron slag 64.0 32.0 6.4
Lignite (raw + briquettes + coke) 7.0 3.5 0.7
Lime 9.0 4.5 0.9
Natural sand + gravel 23.0 11.5 2.3
Nitric fertilizers 20.0 10.0 2.0
Non-mineral fertilizers 20.0 10.0 2.0
Other metal ore 27.0 13.5 2.7
Other raw minerals 15.0 7.5 1.5
Rock salt (sodium chloride) 29.0 14.5 2.9


As AD ([kt] of banked bulk goods) and annual EFs remain unchanged compared to submission 2012, no recalculations had to be carried out.

Planned improvements

After the mentioned complex revision of the transport statistics, the methodology of estimating AD will be adapted replacing extrapolated AD by real data.

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