1.A.5.b Other, Mobile (including Military)

Last updated on 10 Dec 2013 11:53 (cf. Authors)

Short description

In sub-category 1.A.5.b - Other, Mobile (including Military) emissions from military vehicles (landbased and airborne) are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Source for (by1)
1.A.5.b Other: Military - Mobile Combustion T1 NS CS, D no key source

1 T = key source by Trend / L = key source by Level



Activity data

The Energy Balance of the Federal Republic of Germany (AGEB) provides the basis for the activity rates used. Since the Energy Balance does not provide separate listings of military agencies' final energy consumption as of 1995 – and includes this consumption in line 67, under "commerce, trade, services and other consumers" – additional sources of energy statistics had to be found for source category 1.A.5.

For source category 1.A.5.b, consumption data for diesel oil, gasoline, and kerosene, until 1995, were drawn from a special analysis of the Working Group on Energy Balances (AGEB). For the years as of 1995, official mineral-oil data of the Federal Republic of Germany (Amtliche Mineralöldaten der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 2011), prepared by the Federal Office of Economics and Export Control (BAFA), were used (BAFA, 2012) [1]. The delivery data, which are given in units of [1000 t], are converted into [TJ] on the basis of the relevant net calorific values provided by AGEB (AGEB, 2012) [2]. - Emissions from the combustion of aviation gasoline are included for the first time. As there is no such consistent AGEB data availabe for this fuel, delivery data was drawn from the BAFA official mineral-oil data instead and converted into [TJ] for all years.

Table: Sources for consumption data in 1.A.5.b

Relevant years Data Source
through 1994 AGEB - Special evaluation 1990-1994
since 1995 BAFA - Official oil data, table 7j, column: 'An das Militär'

Table: Annual fuel consumption in military vehicles and equipment, in [TJ]

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Diesel Oil 15,037 4,996 5,894 5,458 5,243 8,001 3,087 2,407 2,779 2,313
Gasoline 21,508 16,939 14,848 12,630 11,189 9,800 8,624 8,852 8,271 6,777
Kerosene 38,385 22,082 15,066 15,784 24,080 16,143 10,642 13,885 15,492 12,224
Avgas 15 13 11 9 8 6 3 3 2 2
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Diesel Oil 1,364 1,946 1,785 1,072 979 3,449 1,934 1,917 1,268 1,081
Gasoline 7,477 7,880 7,957 6,797 5,789 6,904 6,217 4,854 5,050 5,047
Kerosene 9,862 3,197 4,501 7,029 5,280 2,200 2,441 2,554 3,597 4,396
Avgas 1 0.61 0.17 0.57 0.35 0.26 2 151 0.002 0.04
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Diesel Oil 1,062 669
Gasoline 5,050 4,888
Kerosene 3,286 4,114
Avgas 0.17 0.002

1 avgas, 2007: possible reason for jump in delivered amounts: storage (resulting in no (2008, 2011) or very small deliveries (2009) (see also: FAQs)
2 avgas, 2008 & 2011: no deliveries - possibly due to storage in military facilities

Emission factors

The EF used here are mostly country specific (gasoline, diesel oil, lead and TSP from avgas). But there are also default values in use especially for emissions from kerosene and avgas.
The country specific EF are derived from comparable sources such as road transport (passenger cars, heavy duty vehicles etc.).
Where no such comparison is possible, default values have been taken from IPCC and EMEP/EEA. Note: As the aircraft used for military purposes differ strongly from those used in civil aviation, the country specific EF used in 1.A.3.a could not be used for reporting emissions from 1.A.5.b as well.

EFs used for 2011 emission estimates

Main Pollutants Particulate Matter Heavy Metals Persistent Organic Pollutants
NEC Other PM2.5 ≤ PM10 ≤ TSP Main HM Other HM Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons PCDD/F
Pollutant NH3 NMVOC NOx SO2 CO PM2.5 PM10 TSP Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se Zn B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[1,2,3-cd]P ∑PAHs Dioxins & Furans
Unit kg/TJ kg/TJ g/TJ mg/TJ µg/TJ
Diesel Oil 4.00 274 1,360 0.37 350 100 3 100 100 NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE 1.62
Gasoline 4.00 373 725 0.40 4,010 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE 2.76
Kerosene 0.00 98 205 9.30 485 12.00 12.00 12.00 NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE 0.00
AvGas NE 3001 3021 0.511 15,0002 NE NE 15.171, 5 9,4811, 6 NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE

1 EF(Avgas): EF for NOx, SO2, and NMVOC, TSP & Pb deduced from avgas in 1.A.3.a ii (i) - Domestic Civil Aviation (LTO)
2 EEA/EMEP default
3 Particulate Matter: EF(TSP) also used for PM2.5 & PM10 (assumption: > 99% of TSP from diesel oil combustion consists of PM2.5)
4 Particulate matter from diesel oil: EF(TSP) from 'Emissionen und Maßnahmenanalyse Feinstaub 2000-2020'
5 TSP from leaded aviation gasoline: EF(TSP) = EF(PB) x 1.6 (see also: FAQs)
6 Lead from aviation gasoline: EF(Pb) calculated from lead content in AvGas 100 LL (see also: 1.A.3.a ii (i) and FAQs)

Trend dicussion for key sources

NFR 1.A.5.b - Other, Mobile (including Military) is no key source.

Nonetheless, this NFR category shows interesting trends for emissions of Lead (Pb) from leaded gasoline (until 1997) and aviation gasoline:

Until 1997, lead emissions were dominated by the combustion of leaded gasoline in military ground-based vehicles. Therefore, the over-all trend for lead emissions from military vehicles and aircraft is driven mostly by the abolition of leaded gasoline in 1997. Towards this date, the amount of leaded gasoline decreased significantly. After 1997, the only source for lead from mobile fuel combustion is avgas used in military aircraft.
As for avgas, the trend of consumption is more or less drecreasing steadily until 2005 but then shows a strong increase for 2006 and '07 (!), followed by no (2008 and 2011) or very small deliveris (2009, 2010). As mentioned above, there are no real consumption data available: AD is based on fuel deliveries to the military only. Thus, especially the trends for the use of aviation gasoline and the resulting emissions show this siginificant jumps in 2006 and 07, falling back to zero in 2008 and 2011. The party is aware of this issue and will try to solve it as soon as data allows. (see also: FAQ)


As AD and annual EFs remain unchanged compared to submission 2012, no recalculations had to be carried out.


Uncertainty estimates for activity data of mobile sources derive from research project FKZ 360 16 023: "Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland". For detailled information, please refer to the project's final report here (German version only!).

Uncertainty estimates for emission factors were compiled during the PAREST research project. Here, the final report has not yet been published.

Planned improvements

At the moment, no category specific improvements are planned.


What is the reason for the big jumps in the consumption of aviation gasoline in 2006 & '07 and the zero-consumption in 2008?

As mentioned above, consumption is deducted from AGEB and BAFA data on the amounts of fuels delivered to the sector. Therefore, the big jumps reported for 2006 & '07 might result from the storage of aviation gasoline in military stocks.
Consequentially, the 0.00 TJ reported for 2008 show the missing of any deliveries to the military and should not be misunderstood as a non-use. The party is aware of this issue and will try to solve it as soon as data allows.

On which basis does the party estimate the reported lead emissions from aviation gasoline?

assumption by party: aviation gasoline = AvGas 100 LL
(AvGas 100 LL is the predominant sort of aviation gasoline in Western Europe)
lead content of AvGas 100 LL: 0.56 g lead/liter (as tetra ethyl lead)

2007 EMEP Corinair Guidebook:

Lead is added to aviation gasoline to increase the octane number. The lead content is higher than in leaded car gasoline,…

The applied procedure is similar to the one used for calculating lead emissions from leaded gasoline used in road transport. (There, in contrast to aviation gasoline, the lead content constantly declined resulting in a ban of leaded gasoline in 1997.)

On which basis does the party estimate the reported TSP emissions from aviation gasoline?

The TSP emissions calculated depend directly on the reported lead emissions: The emission factor for TSP is 1.6 times the emission factor used for lead: EF(TSP) = 1.6 x EF(Pb). - The applied procedure is similar to the one used for calculating TSP emissions from leaded gasoline used in road transport.

Why does the party report an EF(TSP) for leaded aviation gasoline but no EF for PM2.5 & PM2.5 and hence no such emissions?

The EF(TSP) is estimated from the EF(Pb) which has been calculated from the lead content of Avgas 100 LL. There is no information on the percetual shares of PM2.5 & PM10 in the reported TSP and therefore no EF(PM2.5) & EF(PM10) were deducted.

1. BAFA, 2012: Bundesamt für Wirtschaft und Ausfuhrkontrolle, Amtliche Mineralöldaten für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland;
URL: http://www.bafa.de/bafa/de/energie/mineraloel_rohoel/amtliche_mineraloeldaten/index.html, (Aufruf: 28.01.2013), Eschborn.
2. AGEB, 2012: Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Hrsg.): Daten - Sondertabellen - Heizwerte der Energieträger und Faktoren für die Umrechnung von spezifischen Mengeneinheiten in Wärmeinheiten (2000-2011); URL: http://www.ag-energiebilanzen.de/viewpage.php?idpage=65 (Aufruf: 28.01.2013), Köln, Berlin.
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