1.A.3.c Railways

Last updated on 10 Dec 2013 11:53 (cf. Authors)

Short description

In category 1.A.3.c - Railways the emissions from German railways are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Source for (by)
1.A.3.c Railways T11, T2 NS CS no key source

1 where EMEP Corinair default EF have been used

Germany's railway sector is undergoing a long-term modernisation process, aimed at making electricity the main energy source for rail transports. Use of electricity, instead of diesel fuel, to power locomotives has been continually increased, and electricity now provides 80% of all railway traction power. Railways' power stations for generation of traction current are allocated to the stationary component of the energy sector (1.A.1.a) and are not included in the further description that follows here. In energy input for trains of German Railways (Deutsche Bahn AG), diesel fuel is the only energy source that plays a significant role apart from electric power.

Method

Activity Data

The total consumptions of both diesel oil and biodiesel have been taken from the German Energy Balances (AGEB, 2012) [1] and - for comparison (especially recent years) - from sales data of the Association of the German Petroleum Industry (MWV) [2].

Data on the consumption of biodiesel in railways is provided in the German Energy Balances from 2004 onward. As the Energy Balances do not provide a solid time series regarding most recent years, AD is estimated based on the prescribed shares of biodiesel to be added to diesel oil.

Small quantities of solid fuels are used for historic rail vehicles – in the main, steam locomotives that are operated for demonstration and exhibition purposes. Analysable data on consumption and the relevant emissions are available for lignite, through 2002, and for hard coal, through 2000. Outside of the scope of such data, it is not possible to calculate emissions from consumption of solid fuels. Use of other fuels – such as vegetable oils or gas – in private narrow-gauge railway vehicles has not been included to date and may still be considered negligible.

Table: Sources for 1.A.3.c activity data

through 1994 AGEB - National Energy Balance, line 74: 'Schienenverkehr'
from 1995 AGEB - National Energy Balance, line 61: 'Schienenverkehr'
recent years / comparison MWV - Annual report, table: 'Sektoraler Verbrauch von Dieselkraftstoff'

Table: Annual fuel consumption in German railways, [TJ]

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Diesel Oil 38,458 34,121 33,822 34,197 31,919 31,054 29,548 27,806 26,541 25,016
Lignite Briquettes NO NO NO NO NO NO 1,171 798 549 541
Raw Lignite NE NE NE NE NE 61 NE NE 11 NE
Hard Coke NE NE NE NE NE 86 57 14 NE NE
Hard Coal 576 675 540 298 234 29 29 72 54 60
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Diesel Oil 25,410 23,530 22,041 21,611 20,372 18,142 17,101 16,730 16,389 14,336
Biodiesel NO NO NO NO 176 397 498 747 810 987
Lignite Briquettes 431 216 19 0 NE NE NE NE NE NE
Raw Lignite NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE
Hard Coke NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE
Hard Coal 29 NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Diesel Oil 14,626 14,373
Biodiesel 949 947
Lignite Briquettes NE NE
Raw Lignite NE NE
Hard Coke NE NE
Hard Coal NE NE

italic: recalculated against submission 2012: revised MWV data 2005-2009 + revised NEB 2010

Emission factors

The EF used for emission estimations in sector 1.A.3.c - Railways are of very different quality: For NOx, NMVOC, CO, SO2, and PM annually changing tier2 values computed within the TREMOD model are used, representing the development of German railway fleet, fuel quality and mitigation technologies. On the other hand, constant tier1 EF are used for NH3, all reported POPs (PAHs and PCDD/F, EF from UBA study) as well as all heavy metals (EF from EMEP Guidebook).

EF & IEF used for 2011 estimates

Main Pollutants1 Particulate Matter1 Heavy Metals2,3 Persistent Organis Pollutants1,4
NEC Other PM2.5 ≤ PM10 ≤ TSP Main HM Other HM2,3 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons PCDD/F
Pollutant NH3 NMVOC NOx SO2 CO PM2.5 PM10 TSP Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se Zn B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[1,2,3-cd]P ∑PAH Dioxins & Furans
Unit kg/TJ kg/TJ g/TJ mg/TJ g I-Teq
Diesel Oil 0.40 57.48 1.002 0.37 126.72 19.40 19.40 19.40 NE 0.23 NE NE 1.16 39.57 1.63 0.23 23.28 698 IE5 IE5 IE5 930 2.09
Biodiesel 0.40 57.48 1.002 0.37 126.72 19.40 19.40 19.40 NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE 698 IE5 IE5 IE5 930 2.09

1 biodiesel: due to lack of better information: similar EF as for diesel oil
2 Tier1 default EF from EMEP/EEA Emission Inventory Guidebook 2009
3 assumption: no HM emitted from biodiesel
4 EF from UBA study
5 included in EF(∑PAH)

Trend discussion for Key Sources

NFR 1.A.3.c - Railways is no key source.

Recalculations

AD: With this submission, recalculations were carried out due to changes in activity data (AD): The breakdown of diesel oil was revised by the Association of the German Petroleum Industry (MWV) for the years 2005 to 2009. In addition, the provisional NEB 2010 was replaced by a final version. - Given the changes in diesel oil consumption, the annual amounts of blended biodiesel were revised accordingly within TREMOD.

Table: Recalculations in annual diesel oil consumptions

Unit 1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Submission 2013 [TJ] 38,458 31,054 25,410 18,142 17,101 16,730 16,389 14,336 14,626
Submission 2012 [TJ] 38,458 31,054 25,410 18,877 17,014 16,436 15,932 14,329 14,329
absolute change [TJ] 0.00 0.00 0.00 -735 87 294 457 7 297
relative change [%] 0.00 0.00 0.00 -3.89 0.51 1.79 2.87 0.05 2.07

Table: Recalculations in annual biodiesel consumptions

Unit 1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Submission 2013 [TJ] NO NO NO 397 498 747 810 987 949
Submission 2012 [TJ] NO NO NO 413 494 733 784 983 849
absolute change [TJ] 0.00 0.00 0.00 -16 4 14 26 4 100
relative change [%] - - - -3.89 0.81 1.94 3.32 0.44 11.78

EF: Within the TREMOD model used, 2010 EFs changed due to a revised composition of the haul engine fleet active in 2010. EFs for NH3 and SO2 remained unchanged.
The resulting changes of the implied emission factors (IEFs) used for emissions estimation are given in the following table.

Table: Revised IEFs 2010

NOx NMVOC CO PM
Submission 2013 [kg/TJ] 978 53.91 125.46 18.25
Submission 2012 [kg/TJ] 973 52.80 123.23 18.02
absolute change [kg/TJ] 5.00 1.11 2.23 0.24
relative change [%] 0.51 2.10 1.81 1.32

For information on the impacts on 1990 and 2010 emission estimates, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 11.1 - Recalculations.

Uncertainties

Uncertainty estimates for activity data of mobile sources derive from research project FKZ 360 16 023: "Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland". For detailled information, please refer to the project's final report here (German version only)

Uncertainty estimates for emission factors were compiled during the PAREST research project. Here, the final report has not yet been published.

Planned improvements

At the moment, a research project investigates consumption of coal products and other fuels despite diesel oil in historic railway vehicles as these data is not provided sufficiently within the National Energy Balances (see FAQs below).

FAQs

Why does the party report the consumption of solid fuels in railways as 'NE'?

The party is aware, that small quantities of solid fuels are used for historic rail vehicles – in the main, steam locomotives that are operated for demonstration and exhibition purposes. But analysable data on consumption and the relevant emissions are available for lignite, through 2002, and for hard coal, through 2000. Outside of the scope of such data, it is not possible to calculate emissions from consumption of solid fuels.


Bibliography
1. AGEB, 2012: Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Hrsg.): Energiebilanz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland; URL: http://www.ag-energiebilanzen.de/viewpage.php?idpage=63, (Aufruf: 12.01.2013), Köln, Berlin.

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