1.A.2.f.i Other Production

Last updated on 10 Dec 2013 11:53 (cf. Authors)

Short description


Source catagory 1.A.2.f.i - Other Production comprises stationary combustion systems for production of cement clinkers, production of ceramics products as well as glass and lime production. Fuel combustion from heat and power production of industrial power plants and industrial boiler systems are also included.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Source for (by1)
1.A.2.f i Other Production T2 NS SOx & NOx (L/T), CO (L), TSP (T), PM2.5 (L), Hg (T), Cd (T), PCDD/F (T)


Generelly the calculation method is based on a Tier 2/3 approache. This means the use of country-specific data at a more detailed level. Emission factors and activity data are available for different fuel types, different technologies, plant size, etc. The use of plant-spezific data for a bottom-up approache is not possible. Emissions from industrial power plants cannot be allocated clearly to source category 1.A.2, since reality does not follow the definition of the Guidebook. In real life an industrial power plant generates electricity and heat for the industry but also electricity for the public network. Therefore the borderline between these two categories is not fixed. The market is not static. Frequent changes in the cooperate structure of industrial enterprises including the separation of the energy supply via spin-off from the parent company lead to frequent changes between sector 1.A.1.a, 1.A.1.c and 1.A.2. Therefore it was necessary to develope a flexible calculation system, based on robust emission factors, which can be used for all sectors.
Source category 1.A.2.f.i does only include emissions from industrial power plants and boiler systems. All emissions from the production of lime, cement, glass and ceramics are reported in source category 2.A., including all combustion related emissions.

Activity data

Conventional fuels
The key source of all conventional fuel data is the national energy balance. Moreover the use of additional statistical data is necessary in order to disaggregate data. Data source for fuel inputs for energy-related process combustion in cement industry are manufacturing-sector statistics (Statistik des produzierenden Gewerbes); reporting number (Melde-Nr.) 26.51, Cement production. Furthermore the cement industry uses significant amounts of substitute fuels that do not appear in national statistics and in the Energy Balance. Relevant production figures and fuel-use amounts have been taken from statistics of the VDZ cement-industry association. The fuel-input data for ceramics production has also been taken from manufacturing industry statistics (Statistik des produzierenden Gewerbes); reporting no. (Melde-Nr.) 26.40, brickworks (Ziegelei), production of other construction ceramics. The same statistic is also used as source for fuel input of glass ( reporting number: 26.1, Production of glass and glassware) and lime production (reporting number: 26.52, Lime).
The fuel inputs for electricity generation in industrial power stations are shown in Energy Balance line 12. The difference resulting after deduction of the fuel inputs for refinery power stations, pit power stations, power stations in the hard-coal-mining sector and, for the period until 1999, for the power stations of German Railways (Deutsche Bahn) consists of the activity data for other industrial power stations. These data cannot be further differentiated. Additional data from the Federal Statistical Office are needed for allocation of fuel inputs to heat production in industrial power stations and boiler systems. For both electricity production and heat production, gas turbines, gas and steam systems and gas engines are differentiated. These detailed information is provided by the national statistic 067 (industrial power stations). The definition of industrial and public power plants follows the National statistics.

Along with the main Energy Balance, a Satellite Balance of renewable Energies (Satellitenbilanz Erneuerbarer Energieträger) also appears. This balance describes the growth and use of renewable energies in detail. This is the database for all biomass fuels excluding waste.

With regard to determination of activity data from waste incineration and co-combustion of waste in combustion system in source category 1.A.2 Energy Balance and energy statistics show smaller waste quantities than the waste statistics of the Federal Statistical Office (Statistisches Bundesamt, Fachserie 19, Reihe 1). For that reason activity data were taken from waste statistics. Additional data of substitute fuels were provided by industrial associations (lime and cement industry).

Emission factors

The emission factors for power stations and other boiler combustion for production of steam and hot water, in source catagory 1.A.2.f.i, have been taken from the research project "Determination and evaluation of emission factors for combustion systems in Germany for the years 1995, 2000 and 2010". A detailed description of the procedure is presented in Chapter: 1.A.1.a - Public Electricity And Heat Production. This chapter contains also information about emission factors of engines and waste incineration plants.

Table: Implied emission factors for industrial electricity and heat generation

Pollutant SOx NOx TSP CO Pb Hg Cd
Fuel [kg/TJ] [g/TJ]
Hard Coal 276 120 8 27 3.27 2.49 0.29
Lignite 277 103 11 41 0.79 2.41 0.17
Natural gas 0.5 56 0.2 18 NA 0.02 NA
Mineral oil products 103 65 3 8 2.2 0.42 0.04
Biomass 9 175 31 54 0.52 0.13 0.66
Hazardous Waste 0.5 69 0.3 8.3 4.9 0.34 1.1

The table gives an overview of the implied emission factors. In reality the German inventory compiling process is very complex and includes the use of a considerable number of emission factors, which cannot be published completely in the IIR. Actually there are different emission factors available for diverse fuel types, various techniques and licensing requirements. However, the implied emission factor may give an impression about the order of magnitude.
PM 10 and PM 2.5 emission factors are calculated as a fraction of TSP. The share of PM 10 is 90 % and the share of PM 2.5 is 80 %. This is a simple but also conservative approache, knowing that, in reality, PM emissions depend on fuel, combustion and abatement technologies. PM emission reporting starts in 1995, since no sufficient information about the dust composition of the early 1990th is available.

Trend Discussion for Key Sources

The following diagrams give an overview and assistance for explaining dominant emission trends of selected pollutant.

Sulfur Oxides & Nitrogen Oxides - SOx & NOx

Like already discussed in source catagory 1.A.1.c, SOx emission trend is very much influenced by emissions from lignite fired plants. The strong decline of lignite use in the East German industry and the installation of flue gas desulphurisation plants in the remaining heat and power stations are the main reasons for decreasing SOx emissions.

Total Suspended Matter - TSP & Priority Heavy Metal - Hg & Cd

The main driver of TSP and Heavy Metal emission trends is the declining lignite combustion in the east german industry especially in the time period from 1990 to 1994. Besides the noticible improvement of dust extraction installations on the one hand and optimisation of the combustion process on the other hand resulted in considerably decreasing TSP and Heavy Metal emissions. Basically the emission trend of source category 1.A2.f.i is affected by the closure of industrial plants in Eastern Germany after the reunification and the resulting decrease in fuel consumption.

Persistent Organic Pollutants

PCDD and PCDF emissions show a falling trend over the whole time period due to decreasing fuel consumption in the industry sector.


Recalculations were necessary for the latest reference year (2010) due to the availability of the National Energy Balance. Germany has a federal structure which causes a time lack of the National Energy Balance. Therefore recalculations are always necessary.
Further recalculations due to a comprehensive evaluation of measurements which necessitated a revision of SOX emission factors of lignite fired power plants. The revision of waste data led to small changes of heavy metals and POPs emissions. Further recalculations for all Pollutants were necessary due to the first-time reporting of emissions from liquid biomass.

For pollutant specific information on qualitative and quantitative impacts on 1990 and 2010 emission estimates see chapter 11. Recalculations.

Planned improvements

It´s planned to revise CO emission factors for all combustion plants. A medium-term goal is the evaluation of TSP, PM 10 and PM 2.5 emission factors.

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