1.A.3.a.i International Civil Aviation

Last updated on 10 Dec 2013 11:53 (cf. Authors)

Short description

Category 1.A.3.a i - International Civil Aviation consists of sub-categories for emissions from flight phases LTO (Landing/Take-off: 0-3,000 feet) and Cruise (> 3,000 feet) where only emissions from LTO have to be included in the national totals.

In the following, information on emission factors and emissions for both 1.A.3.a i (i) - International Civil Aviation (LTO) and 1.A.3.a i (ii) - International Civil Aviation (Cruise) are provided.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Source for (by1)
1.A.3.a i International Civil Aviation T1, T3 NS CS, D
consisting of / including sub-categories
1.A.3.a i (i) Landing/Take-off (LTO)2 T1, T3 NS CS, D no key source
1.A.3.a i (ii) Cruise3 T1, T3 NS CS, D no key source

1 T = key source by Trend / L = key source by Level
2 1.A.3.a i (i) - LTO: included in national totals
3 1.A.3.a i (ii) - Cruise: not included in national totals

Method

For a detailed description of the methods used for emission calculations, see main chapter 1.A.3.a - Civil Aviation.

Actitvity Data

Table: jet kerosene consumption 1990-2011

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
164,110 162,930 178,747 192,020 200,496 208,244 218,308 225,626 232,976 251,238
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
266,574 260,744 259,372 264,233 288,973 315,157 330,823 343,101 347,026 337,524
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
334,201 321,621

italic: recalculated against submission 2012

Table: jet kerosene consumption for LTO and cruise 1990-2011

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
1.A.3.a i (i) 13,232 13,588 15,534 16,147 16,748 18,000 18,853 19,388 19,654 20,660
1.A.3.a i (ii) 150,877 149,342 163,213 175,873 183,748 190,244 199,454 206,238 213,323 230,579
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
1.A.3.a i (i) 21,701 21,463 20,602 21,542 24,088 25,933 27,255 28,474 29,250 27,861
1.A.3.a i (ii) 244,873 239,281 238,769 242,691 264,885 289,224 303,568 314,627 317,776 309,663
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
1.A.3.a i (i) 28,981 30,617
1.A.3.a i (ii) 305,219 291,004

italic: recalculated against submission 2012

Emission factors

All emission factors used for emission reporting were ascertained within UBA project FKZ 360 16 029 [1].
For more details, see superordinate chapter on 1.A.3.a - Civil Aviation.

IEFs used for 2011 estimates

Main Pollutants Particulate Matter Heavy Metals Persistent Organic Pollutants
NEC Other PM2.5 ≤ PM10 ≤ TSP Main HM Other HM PAH Dioxins & Furans
Pollutant NH3 NMVOC NOx SO2 CO PM2.5 PM10 TSP Pb Cd Hg As - Zn B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[1,2,3-cd]P ∑PAH PCDD/F
Unit kg/TJ kg/TJ g/TJ mg/TJ µg/TJ
1.A.3.a i (i) 4.00 59.04 296.90 4.65 354.34 2.16 2.16 2.16 NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE
1.A.3.a i (ii) 4.00 11.99 320.19 4.65 29.37 4.65 4.65 4.65 NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE

source: IEF values computed within TREMOD AV

Trend discussion for Key Sources

NFR 1.A.3.a i (i) - International Civil Aviation - LTO is not a key source.
NFR 1.A.3.a i (ii) - International Civil Aviation - Cruise is no part of national emission totals and hence not included in the key source analysis.

Recalculations

AD: Several revisions regarding within the ratios or shares used (Eurocontrol: domestic shares 2007-2010, Destatis: number of flights and LTOs) led to slight changes in emission estimates 2007-2010.

A revision of the models used by Eurocontrol resulted in slightly changed domestic shares for the years from 2007 and thus adapted international shares.

Table: Recalculations of international share (= 100% minus domestic share)

Unit 1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Submission 2013 [1] 84.89 89.21 89.68 91.66 91.58 91.63 91.72 91.91 92.38
Submission 2012 [1] 84.89 89.21 89.68 91.66 91.58 91.90 92.01 92.29 92.64
absolute change [1] 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 -0.26 -0.29 -0.38 -0.26
relative change [%] 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 -0.29 -0.31 -0.42 -0.28

2007-2010: due to revised Eurocontrol data

The revised domestic shares resulted in the following corrections within the 1.A.3.a.i kerosene consumption:

Table: Recalculations in 1.A.3.a.i kerosene consumption

Unit 1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Submission 2013 [TJ] 164,110 208,244 266,574 315,157 330,823 343,101 347,026 337,524 334,201
Submission 2012 [TJ] 164,110 208,244 266,574 315,156 330,822 344,088 348,121 338,933 335,129
absolute change [TJ] 0 0 0 1 0 -988 -1,095 -1,409 -928
relative change [%] 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 -0.29 -0.31 -0.42 -0.28

2007-2010: due to revised domestic share

In addition, the time series for LTO ratios was recalculated within TREMOD AV based upon newly available information from the Federal Statistical Office:

Table: Recalculations in 1.A.3.a i (i) (LTO) shares

Unit 1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Submission 2013 [1] 31,35 35,37 31,09 32,59 31,97 31,87 32,48 32,07 34,53
Submission 2012 [1] 31,35 35,37 31,09 32,59 31,97 32,91 33,65 33,66 35,74
absolute change [1] 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 -1,04 -1,18 -1,60 -1,20
relative change [%] 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 -3,15 -3,50 -4,74 -3,37

Resulting from all revisions and recalculations described for 1.A.3.a and for 1.A.3.a i above, the specific activity data for 1.A.3.a i (i) - International civil aviation - LTO and 1.A.3.a ii (ii) - International civil aviation - Cruise were recalculated as follows:

Table: Recalculations in 1.A.3.a i (i) LTO consumption data 1990-2010

Unit 1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Submission 2013 [TJ] 13,232 18,000 21,701 25,933 27,255 28,474 29,250 27,861 28,981
Submission 2012 [TJ] 13,232 18,000 21,701 25,933 27,255 28,474 29,250 27,861 28,981
absolute change [TJ] 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
relative change [%] 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Table: Recalculations in 1.A.3.a i (ii) cruise consumption data 1990-2010

Unit 1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Submission 2013 [TJ] 164,110 208,244 266,574 315,157 330,823 343,101 347,026 337,524 334,201
Submission 2012 [TJ] 164,110 208,244 266,574 315,156 330,822 344,088 348,121 338,933 335,129
absolute change [TJ] 0 0 0 1 0 -988 -1,095 -1,409 -928
relative change [%] 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 -0.29 -0.31 -0.42 -0.28

The entire time series of 1.A.3.a i (i) (LTO) consumption is calculated using information on average fuel consumption per LTO cycle. 1.A.3.a i (ii) (cruise) consumption is then calculated as the difference of total 1.A.3.a i consumption minus 1.A.3.a i (i) (LTO) consumption. Therefore, significant changes in primary AD only effect 1.A.3.a i (ii) consumption data.

(I)EF: Furthermore, due to revised Federal Statistical Office data on number of LTOs and flights, tier3 EF for recent years were revised slightly compared submission 2012.

As result of the changes described, emission estimates were recalculated for both 1.A.3.a i (i) and 1.A.3.a i (ii).
For information on the impacts on 1990 and 2010 emission estimates, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 11.1 - Recalculations.

Uncertainties

For uncertainties information, see main chapter 1.A.3.a - Civil Aviation.

Planned improvements

At the moment, no category specific improvements are planned.

FAQs

Why does the party use similar emission factors for estimating emissions of PM2.5 , PM10 , and TSP from jet kerosene?

According to the 2007 EMEP Corinair Guidebook, PM emissions from aircraft engines can be considered as PM2.5:

From combustion science principles it is anticipated that the PM2.5/PM10 ratio for aircraft engines will be similar to, or higher than, that for internal combustion engines. Given that the ratio for IC engines is found to be 94%, it is reasonable to assume that for aircraft their PM emissions can be considered as PM2.5. The PM2.5/PM10 ratio most commonly used when reporting values within EMEP is 1.0. This is the relationship assumed in this guidebook.

Why are the SO2 emission factors for jet kerosene the same for national and international civil aviation as well as for LTO and Cruise whereas the EFs of other pollutants are different for all four sub-categories?

Emissions of NMVOC, CO or NOx depend strongly on parameters such as engine type and altitude (and therewith on atmospheric pressure, environmental temperature, humidity, etc.). As the average fleets operating in national and international aviation are assumed to be not equal (average size of aircraft or engine), the EFs vary for both national and international aviation and flight stages (LTO, Cruise). In contrast, emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO2) depend exclusively on the sulphur content of the fuel in question which is also subject to regional fluctuations.


Bibliography
1. AGEB, 2012: Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Hrsg.): Energiebilanz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland; URL: http://www.ag-energiebilanzen.de/viewpage.php?idpage=63, (Aufruf: 12.11.2012), Köln, Berlin.
2. BAFA, 2012: Bundesamt für Wirtschaft und Ausfuhrkontrolle, Amtliche Mineralöldaten für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland;
URL: http://www.bafa.de/bafa/de/energie/mineraloel/amtliche_mineraloeldaten/index.html, (Aufruf: 21.01.2013), Eschborn.
3. Ifeu & Öko-Institut, 2010: Implementierung eines eigenständigen Moduls zur Berechnung des Flugverkehrs in das bestehende TREMOD-System, vorläufiger Endbericht zum F+E-Vorhaben 360 16 029, Berlin & Heidelberg, November 2010; URL: http://webdev3/websites/I2-6/projekte/Endberichte%20%20Dokumente/FKZ%20360%2016%20029%20(Implementierung%20des%20Flugverkehrs%20in%20TREMOD)/03_Endbericht_(Draft).pdf
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