2.C.2 Ferroalloys Production

Last updated on 10 Dec 2013 11:53 (cf. Authors)

Short description

Source category Ferroalloys Production is of minor significance and not a key source.

Ferroalloys are aggregates that are alloyed with steel. Germany has one producer of ferrochrome and one of ferrosilicon; these materials are used as alloying agents in stainless-steel production. Also silicon metal is produced in Germany. Activity data can be obtained from the national official statistics for 2001 to 2006 and from the US Geological Survey (USGS) for 1990 to 2007, with the latter being almost 50% higher. Due to consistency of time series, data from the USGS are used for the whole period 1990 - 2009. According to the relevant producer, about 50,000 t (expert judgement) of ferrochrome, ferrosilicon and silicon metal were produced in 2010. In addition, the only process in use since 1995 is the electric arc process, a process that releases only small amounts of process-related emissions, with such releases occurring in electrode consumption. Until 1995, the blast-furnace process, which produces relatively higher emissions, was used to some extent.

Method

Activity data

An activity rate figure of 50,000 t has been used for the year 2010 (expert judgement), a recalculation will be made when statistical data are available.

Emission factors

The emission factor for TSP (0.1 kg/t for the current year and back to 1998) and the splitting factor for PM10 and PM2.5 are determined in a research project "Emissionen und Maßnahmenanalyse Feinstaub 2000-2020" by Jörß, Handke (UBA, 2007) [1]. There were higher but decreasing EF for the period 1990 -1997 due to the technology change.

Recalculations

Recalculations were necessary for the last year due to new available AD from USGS.


Bibliography
1. UBA, 2007: Jörß, Wolfram; Handke, Volker; Lambrecht, Udo and Dünnebeil, Frank (2007): Emissionen und Maßnahmenanalyse Feinstaub 2000 – 2020. UBA-TEXTE Nr. 38/2007. Dessau-Roßlau: Umweltbundesamt. URL: http://www.umweltdaten.de/publikationen/fpdf-l/3309.pdf
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