2.A Energy-intensive mineral industries

Last updated on 10 Dec 2013 11:53 (cf. Authors)

Here you can find information about the main energy-intensive mineral industries Cement Production (2.A.1), Lime Production (2.A.2), Glass Production (2.A.7.d) and Ceramics Production (2.A.7.d). - Minor industries such as Soda Ash Production (2.A.4), Asphalt Roofing (2.A.5), Road Paving (2.A.6), Construction (2.A.7.b) and the Salt Production (2.A.7.d) are described under other mineral industries.

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The important meaning of this categories is caused by the intensive use of energy for burning processes. For other aspacts see this following overview:

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Source relevance
2.A.1 Cement Production T1 AS CS just within for Hg and PM2.5
2.A.2 Lime Production T1 AS CS beyond the 80% level for all
2.A.7.d Glass Production T2 AS CS beyond the 80% level for all
2.A.7.d Ceramics Production T1 NS CS beyond the 80% level for all

T1 = Tier 1 in relation to EF / T2 = Tier 2 in relation to EF

All four categories in detail:

2.A.1 - Cement Production

Short description
The remarks below refer to production of cement clinkers and clinker grinding (only relevant as a source for particulate matter). The clinker-burning process emits climate-relevant gases. CO2 accounts for the great majority of these emissions. But heavy metals are important too.

Method

Activity data
Activity data are determined via summation of figures for individual plants (until 1994, activity data were determined on the basis of data of the BDZ). As of 1995, following optimisation of data collection within the association, activity data were compiled by the German Cement Works Association (VDZ), and by its cement-industry research institute (located in Düsseldorf), via surveys of German cement works and use of BDZ figures. The data mainly consists of data published in the framework of CO2 monitoring, and supplemented with data for plants that are not BDZ members (in part, also VDZ estimates). Most companies are also required to report production data within the framework of CO2-emissions trading. The EU monitoring guidelines for emissions trading specify a maximum accuracy of 2.5 %.

Emission factors
The emission factors used for emissions calculation are based on figures for individual plants and from research projects as well as from expert judgements.

In the German cement industry, dust separated from clinker burning exhaust gas is returned to the burning process. As a result, there is no need to take account of significant losses of particles via the exhaust-gas pathway. - On the other hand, particultae matter emissions occur duiring clinker grinding.

pollutant Name of Category EF unit Trend
NOx clinker burning 0.76 kg/t falling
SO2 clinker burning 0.27 kg/t falling
NMVOC clinker burning 0.046 kg/t constant
NH3 clinker burning 0.067 kg/t constant
Hg clinker burning 0.028 g/t falling
Pb clinker burning 0.020 g/t falling
Cd clinker burning 0.005 g/t falling
PCB clinker burning 28.0 µg/t constant
PCDD clinker burning 0.040 µg/t constant
B(a)P clinker burning 1.0 mg/t constant
PAH clinker burning 240 mg/t constant
TSP clinker grinding 0.058 kg/t falling
PM10 clinker grinding 0.051 kg/t falling
PM2.5 clinker grinding 0.046 kg/t falling

Emissions of HCB are not applicable according to a research result.

Recalculations

Recalculation activities were not necessary.

FAQ
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2.A.2 - Lime Production

Short description
The statements made below regarding source category 2.A.2 refer solely to the amounts of burnt lime and dolomite lime produced in German lime works. Information about other lime-producing and lime-using sectors is provided under NFR 2.A.3, in the interest of preserving the international comparability of NFR 2.A.2.

Because of the wide range of applications covered by the sector's products, lime production is normally more isolated from economic fluctuations than is production of other mineral products such as cement. Production has fluctuated relatively little since the end of the 1990s. Dolomite-lime production, of which significantly smaller amounts are produced, basically exhibits similar fluctuations.

Method
The pertinent emissions level is obtained by multiplying the amount of product in question (quick lime or dolomite lime) and the relevant emission factor.
Activity data
The German Lime Association (BVK) collects the production data for the entire time series on a plant-specific basis, and makes it available for reporting purposes. Production amounts are determined via several different concurrent procedures; their quality is thus adequately assured (Tier 2). Most companies are also required to report lime-production data within the framework of CO2-emissions trading. The EU monitoring guidelines for emissions trading specify a maximum accuracy of 2.5 %.
Emission factors

pollutant Name of Category EF unit Trend
NOx lime (quick and dolomite) 1.22 kg/t falling
SO2 lime (quick and dolomite) 0.062 kg/t constant
NMVOC lime (quick and dolomite) 0.041 kg/t constant
TSP lime (quick and dolomite) 0.026 kg/t falling
PM10 lime (quick and dolomite) 0.0198 kg/t falling
PM2.5 lime (quick and dolomite) 0.0118 kg/t falling

Recalculations

Recalculation activities were not necessary.

FAQ
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2.A.3 - Limestone Use

Short description
The different use of limestone in industry and consumption is documented in the NIR. For references of limestone using categories see the following studies first balance as well as balance evaluation.

2.A.7.d - Glass Production

Short description
The NFR category 2.A.7.d is not disaggregated enough for the specific emissions of this sector and because of this is documented separately. Glass production is the main driver of NFR-category 2.A.7.d (other) and so more important than 'other'.
Germany's glass industry produces a wide range of different glass types that differ in their chemical composition. Germany's glass sector comprises the following sub-sectors: container glass, flat glass, domestic glass, special glass and mineral fibres (glass and stone wool). The largest production quantities are found in the sectors of container glass and flat glass. Further processing and treatment of glass and glass objects are not considered.

Method
The emissions are calculated via a higher Tier, near a Tier 2 method, because the activity rates are tied to specific emission factors for different glass types.

Activity data
The production figures are taken from the regularly appearing annual reports of the Federal Association of the German Glass Industry (Bundesverband Glasindustrie; BV Glas). "Production" refers to the amount of glass produced, which is considered to be equivalent to the amount of glass melted down.
Emission factors
The procedure used to determine emission factors for the various glass types involved and the pertinent emissions is described in detail in reports of research projects (Report-No. 001264, search "UBA-FB 001264" in [http://doku.uba.de] => OPAC => Signatur). The emission factors were calculated for the various industry sectors. The factors vary annually in keeping with industry monitoring (and thus time ranges are given as average over all glass types):

pollutant Name of Category EF unit current Trend
NOx glass production 1.8-4.4 kg/t falling
SO2 glass production 0.8-1.8 kg/t falling
NMVOC glass production 0.96 kg/t constant
NH3 glass production 0.5-1.0 kg/t falling
TSP glass production 0.02-0.04 kg/t constant
PM10 glass production 0.01-0.03 kg/t constant
PM2.5 glass production 0.01 kg/t constant

Recalculations

Recalculations were necessary due to updated activity data for the last reported year.

FAQ
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2.A.7.d - Ceramics Production

Short description
The NFR category 2.A.7.d (other) is not disaggregated enough for the specific emissions of this sector and because of this documented separately. Ceramics production is a important part of mineral industries.
The activity data are used to calculate the entire ceramics industry's emissions of NEC pollutants and dust. Process-related CO2 emissions, on the other hand, are calculated only for the sub-quantities "roof tiles" and "bricks" (documented in NIR).

Method
All emissions are calculated via a Tier 1 method, because no detailed data are available and because this source category is not a key source.

Activity data
Official statistics are of limited use in determining actual production trends in the brick industry, in terms of weights, since such statistics list production of bricks in cubic metres, and production of tiles in square metres and production of roof tiles in numbers of tiles. Produced weight quantities can be determined only via conversion factors.
Emission factors
Process-related emissions originate in the raw materials for production (normally, locally available loams and clays with varying concentrations of organic impurities, specific raw material mixes). New EF are documented in detail in a report of a research projects (http://www.umweltdaten.de/publikationen/fpdf-l/3923.pdf) taking into acount information of industry monitoring.

pollutant Name of Category EF unit Trend
NOx all ceramics 0.177 kg/t constant
SO2 all ceramics 0.10 kg/t constant
NMVOC all ceramics 0.008 kg/t constant
NH3 all ceramics 0.004 kg/t constant
TSP all ceramics 0.10 kg/t falling
PM10 all ceramics 0.08 kg/t falling
PM2.5 all ceramics 0.05 kg/t falling

Recalculations

Recalculations were not necessary.

FAQ
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