4.D Agricultural Soils

Last updated on 10 Dec 2013 11:53 (cf. Authors)

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Source for (by)
4.D Agricultural Soils
consisting of / including source categories
4.D 1 a Synthetic N-fertilizers T2 (NH3), T1 (for NOx) NS D (NH3), D (NOx) NOx (L), NH3 (L/T)
4.D 2 a Farm-level agricultural operations including storage, handling and transport of agricultural products T3 (NH3); T2 (for NOx); T1 (TSP, PM) RS, NS, M (for NOx) D (for NOx) NOx (L), TSP (L), PM10 (L/T)
4.D 2 b Off-farm storage, handling and transport of bulk agricultural products - - - -
4.D 2 c N-excretion on pasture range and paddock T1 (for NOx), T3 (NH3) RS D -

Country specifics

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NH3 and NOx

In 2011 the sector of agricultural soils contributes ca. 86 Gg NH3 or 16.5% to the total agricultural NH3 emissions in Germany (529 Gg NH3). The main source is the application of N-fertilizer (4.D 1a), contributing 89.2 % of of soil-related NH3 emissions (~77 Gg). N excretions on pastures (4.D 2c) and the growth of legumes (4.D 2a) have shares of 9.7% (~8 Gg) and 1.1 % (~1 Gg), respectively. NH3 emissions from the application of manure is included in sector 4B.

Agricultural soils make up 98.3% (110.5 Gg) of the total of NOx emissions in the agricultural sector (112 Gg). The NOx emissions from agricultural soils are mostly due to application of mineral fertilizer (63.8%) and manure (33.4 %) while excretions on pastures are of minor importance (2.8%). NOx emissions from crop residues and biological N fixation (legumes) are not reported as neither IPCC nor EMEP (2009) provide a calculation methodology.

NMVOC

NMVOC emissions from agriculture are not reported for this submission as the methodology used in previous submissions has been evaluated as not adequate by international experts (Rösemann et al., (2013) [12]).

PM2,5 & PM10

In 2011, agricultural soils contribute 11.8% (0.7 Gg) and 48.2% (ca. 19 Gg) to the total agricultural PM2,5, and PM10, emissions (PM2,5: 6.1 Gg, PM10: 38.8 Gg), respectively. The emissions are reported in category 4D2a.

4.D 1a Synthetic N-fertilizers

Activity Data

German statistics report the amount of fertilizers sold. Assuming that the change of fertilizers stocked is small compared with the amount of fertilizers sold, the amount of fertilizer sold is taken to be the amount of fertilizer applied.

The amount of N fertilizer applied in the year 2011 is 1,786 Gg N.

Methodology

NH3 emissions are calculated using a detailed methodology according to EMEP(2009)-4D-12ff [10]. For NH3 emissions, various fertilizer types are distinguished. Regions are differentiated according to their mean spring temperatures. For details see Rösemann et al. (2013) [12].

For NOx, the simpler methodology described in EMEP(2009) [10]-B1010-15 is applied.

Emission factors

The emission factors for NH3 depend on fertilizer type and mean spring temperature, see EMEP(2009)-4D-14[10]. The emission calculations were made with region specific spring temperatures. As the mean spring temperature in Germany is around 9°C, Table 1 lists the EMEP emission factors for 9°C for the fertilizers used in the inventory.

Table 1: NH3-EF for mineral fertilizers

Mineral fertilizers, emission factors in NH3-N per kg fertilizer N
Fertilizer type EF (9°C)
ammonium sulphate 0.0133
ammonium nitrate 0.0073
calcium ammonium nitrate 0.0073
anhydrous ammonia 0.0194
urea 0.1138
nitrogen solutions 0.0581
ammonium phosphates 0.0133
other NK and NPK 0.0073

For NOx, the simpler methodology by EMEP(2009)-4D-10ff [10] was used. The emission factor for NOx-N is obtained by multiplying the EMEP emission factor of 0.026 NO per kg fertilizer N (EMEP, 2009-4D, Table 3-1) with the atomic weight ratio 14/30. Other than stated in EMEP (2009)-4D, Table 3-1, this emission factor is based on Stehfest und Bouwman (2006) [13]. The emission factor for NOx as NO2 is obtained by multiplying the NO emission factor with the atomic weight ratio 46/30

Table 2: Emission factor for NOx emissions from fertilizer application

Emission factor kg NOx-N per kg fertilizer N kg NOx-N per kg fertilizer N
EFfert, NOx 0.012 0.040

4.D 2a Farm-level agricultural operations including storage, handling and transport of agricultural products

Activity data

Activity data are nitrogen in manure applied and nitrogen fixed in legumes during cultivation. Note that no NOx is calculated for legumes and that NH3 from application of manure is included under 4.B.

Table 3: AD for the estimation of NH3 and NOx emissions.

Activity data
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011
Gg N
Application of manure 1,163.9 1,014.7 980.9 946.0 937.8 936.2
N fixed in legumes 140.4 95.6 95.6 94.7 77.05 79.6

The activity data used for the estimation of PM emissions is presented in table 4.

Table 4: AD for the estimation of PM emission

Area in 1000*ha
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011
Arable land 11,971.3 11,834.5 11,803.5 11,903.3 11,846.7 11,874.1
Horticultural land 84.8 75.6 88.2 99.6 107.4 108.4
total 12,056.1 11,910.1 11,891.8 12,002.8 11,954.0 11,982.5

Application of manure

NH3 emissions from the application of manure are reported under 4.B.
NOx emissions from the application of manure are considered to be proportional to the amount of N applied.

Activity data

(see table 3)

Methodology

The inventory calculates NO emissions which are subsequently converted into NOx emissions by multiplying with 46/30. The simpler methodology for the application of mineral fertilizer as described in EMEP(2009)-4D-10ff [10] is used, as no specific methodology is available for manure application.

Emission factors

As the method for manure application is used, the emission factor for manure application (see Table 2) was adopted. It is shown in Table 6 as NOx-N emission factor as well as NOx (i. e. NO2) emission factor.

Table 5: Emission factor for NOx emissions from manure application

Emission factor kg NOx-N per kg manure N kg NOx-N per kg manure N
EF 0.012 0.040

N fixation of legumes

Biological N fixation worth considering takes place in legumes only. First and foremost, emissions of N species from legumes are related to the amount of N fixed. In the German inventory, this is assumed to be proportional to the area covered with legumes and the plant specific nitrogen fixation rate. The German inventory also takes clover-grass and alfalfa-grass mixtures into account. Double counting of the relevant areas is avoided.

Activity data

The amount of nitrogen fixed biologically is considered the actual activity. It is obtained from the area cultivated with a legume and the specific fixation rate of this legume (see table above).

Methodology

A detailed calculation procedure for ammonia is described in EMEP(2007)-B1020-12 [9].

Emission factors

The emission factor for NH3 is taken from EMEP(2007)-B1020-12[9].

Table 6: Emission factors for NH3-N emissions from biological N-fixation

Emission factor
EFN, NH3 0.01 kg kg-1 NH3-N

Cultivation of arable land (PM2,5,PM10)

During cultivation of arable and grassland, particulate matter is emitted.

Activity data

The activity data are the areas of arable and horticultural land. These data is provided by official statistics (see table 4).

Methodology

As the Tier 2 methodology described in EMEP(2009)-4D-13 [10] cannot be used due to lack of input data, the Tier 1 methodology described in EMEP(2009)-4D-10 f [10] is used. The approach deals with arable land only. It only allows for a first estimate of the order of magnitude to be expected for these emissions.
As no emission factor is available for TSP, TSP is assumed to equal the emission of PM10.

Emission factors

Emission factors factor given in EMEP(2009)-4D-11 [10] for arable land are used. As no specific emission factors are available for horticultural land, PM emissions from horticultural land are calculated with the emission factors for arable land.

Table 7: Emission factors for PM emissions from agricltural soils

Emission factor kg ha-1 a-1
EFPM10 1.56
EFPM2.5 0.06

4.D 2c N-excretion on pasture range and paddock

The calculation of NH3 and NOx emission resulting from animal excreta dropped during grazing is described in the following. For details see Rösemann et al. (2013) [12].

Activity data

Activity data for NH3 emissions during grazing is the amount of TAN excreted on pasture. It is proportional to the total TAN excretion of an animal; the factor of proportionality is defined as the fraction of time the animal spends on pasture. Activity data for NOx emissions during grazing is the amount of N excreted on pasture. It is proportional to the total N excretion of an animal; the factor of proportionality is the same as for TAN. For details see Rösemann et al. (2013) [12].

Table 8: AD N excretion

N excretion on pasture range and paddock in Gg N
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011
Dairy cows 113.0 74.5 64.5 55.1 50.4 51.5
Other cattle 84.9 81.2 84.2 74.1 74.0 71.1
Buffalo 0 0 0.008 0.016 0.031 0.035
Sheep 12.7 11.6 10.7 10.4 8.8 7.1
Goats 0.34 0.38 0.53 0.64 0.56 0.56
Horses 4.9 6.2 5.0 5.0 4.6 4.6
Mules and asses 0.058 0.058 0.058 0.058 0.058 0.058
Swine 0 0 0 0 0 0

Method

NH3 emissions from grazing are calculated by multiplying the amount of TAN excreted on pasture with the emission factor (see Table 11). NO emissions are proportional to the amount of total N excreted on pasture; the factor of proportionality is the emission factor (see Table 9).

Emission Factors

The emission factors for NH3 are taken from EMEP(2009)-4B-26 [10]. They relate to the amount of TAN excreted on pasture. The emission factor for NOx is taken from EMEP(2007)-B1020-12 [9]. It relates to the amount of total N excreted on pasture. In order to obtain NOx emissions (as NO2) the NOx-N emission factor is to be multiplied by 46/14.

Table 9: Emission factors for emissions of NH3 and NOx from grazing

Emission factor
EFN, NH3 Dairy cows 0.10 kg kg-1 NH3-N
EFN, NH3 Other cattle 0.06 kg kg-1 NH3-N
EFN, NH3 Horses, mulles and asses 0.35 kg kg-1 NH3-N
EFN, NH3 Buffalo 0.13 kg kg-1 NH3-N
EFN, NH3 Sheep, goats 0.09 kg kg-1 NH3-N
EFN, NOx all animals 0.007 kg kg-1 NOx-N
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