1.A.3.b.iv Exhaust Emissions from Motorcycles and Mopeds

Last updated on 10 Dec 2013 11:53 (cf. Authors)

Short description

In sub-categories 1.A.3.b iv - Road transport: Mopeds & motorcycles emissions from fuel combustion in Motorcycles and Mopeds are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Source for (by1)
1.A.3.b iv Mopeds & Motorcycles T3 NS CS no key source

1 T = key source by Trend / L = key source by Level

Method

Activity data

Table: Annual fuel consumption of mopeds and motorcycles, [TJ]

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Gasoline 22,049 20,585 19,352 19,283 15,858 16,675 17,460 18,087 18,426 19,038
Bioethanol 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Gasoline 19,137 19,255 19,907 19,485 20,059 20,136 20,091 16,898 17,355 17,757
Bioethanol 0 0 0 0 21 137 286 225 326 493
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Gasoline 17,754 17,982
Bioethanol 660 709

italic: values recalculated compared to submission 2012

For information on mileage, please refer to sub-chapters on emissions from tyre & brake wear and road abrasion.

Emission factors

Emissions factors for exhaust emissions from road transport are taken from the 'Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport' (HBEFA, version 3.1) where they are provided on a tier3 level mostly and processed within the TREMOD software used by the party. Therefore, it is not possible to display them in a clear and comprehendible table. - For further information, please see the Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport and the TREMOD software.

Trend discussion for Key Categories

NFR 1.A.3.b iv - Exhaust Emissions from Motorcycles and Mopeds is no key source.

Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC)

Since 1990, exhaust emissions of NMVOC have decreased due to technical improvements.

Sulphur dioxide (SO2)

As for the entire road transport sector, the trends for sulphur dioxide (SO2) exhaust emissions from two-wheelers shows charcteristics very different from those shown above: Here, the strong dependence on increasing fuel qualities (sulphur content) leads to an cascaded downward trend of SO2 emissions , influenced only slightly by increases in fuel consumption and mileage.

Total suspended particles (TSP)

Particle (TSP) emissions reported here result from the use of leaded gasoline only, therefore decreasing stronlgy until the ban of leaded gasoline in 1997.

Recalculations

Recalculations were carried out due to a regular revision of the TREMOD software as well the CSE data warehouse. Compared to submission 2012, the inventory, for the first time, includes PM emissions from the combustion of gasoline and bioethanol.

AD: Activity data were revised broadly within TREMOD. Here, changes result mostly from reallocations of consumption shares between the different vehicle types and classes with 1.A.3.b over-all sums remaining nearly unchanged for years before 2005.

Table: Revision of over-all consumption data

Unit 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Submission 2013 [TJ] 22,049 20,585 19,352 19,283 15,858 16,675 17,460 18,087 18,426 19,038
Submission 2012 [TJ] 16,190 15,108 14,163 14,047 11,541 12,154 12,758 13,270 13,510 14,013
absolute change [TJ] 5,859 5,477 5,189 5,236 4,317 4,521 4,702 4,817 4,915 5,025
relative change [%] 36 36 37 37 37 37 37 36 36 36
Unit 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Submission 2013 [TJ] 19,137 19,255 19,907 19,485 20,080 20,273 20,377 17,123 17,681 18,250
Submission 2012 [TJ] 14,184 14,401 15,028 14,651 15,139 15,359 15,384 12,456 12,731 12,905
absolute change [TJ] 4.953 4.854 4.880 4.834 4.941 4.915 4.993 4.667 4.950 5.345
relative change [%] 35 34 32 33 33 32 32 37 39 41
Unit 2010
Submission 2013 [TJ] 18,414
Submission 2012 [TJ] 13,070
absolute change [TJ] 5,344
relative change [%] 41

Table: Revision of consumption data for mopeds

Unit 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Submission 2013 [TJ] 4,940 3,910 2,864 2,373 3,283 3,443 3,324 3,182 3,373 3,370
Submission 2012 [TJ] 3,682 3,004 2,266 1,929 2,729 2,902 2,780 2,675 2,892 2,877
absolute change [TJ] 1,258 905 598 444 554 540 544 506 482 493
relative change [%] 34 30 26 23 20 19 20 19 17 17
Unit 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Submission 2013 [TJ] 3,134 3,041 2,809 2,906 3,140 3,159 3,281 3,246 3,353 3,433
Submission 2012 [TJ] 2,657 2,613 2,364 2,496 2,708 2,721 2,832 2,828 2,901 2,928
absolute change [TJ] 477 428 445 409 432 438 449 418 453 505
relative change [%] 18 16 19 16 16 16 16 15 16 17
Unit 2010
Submission 2013 [TJ] 3,305
Submission 2012 [TJ] 2,906
absolute change [TJ] 399
relative change [%] 14

Table: Revision of consumption data for motorcycles

Unit 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Submission 2013 [TJ] 17,110 16,675 16,488 16,911 12,575 13,233 14,136 14,905 15,052 15,668
Submission 2012 [TJ] 12,508 12,104 11,897 12,118 8,813 9,252 9,978 10,595 10,619 11,136
absolute change [TJ] 4,601 4,572 4,591 4,792 3,763 3,981 4,158 4,310 4,434 4,532
relative change [%] 37 38 39 40 43 43 42 41 42 41
Unit 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Submission 2013 [TJ] 16,003 16,214 17,098 16,580 16,919 16,977 16,811 13,652 14,002 14,324
Submission 2012 [TJ] 11,528 11,787 12,664 12,155 12,431 12,743 12,552 9,628 9,830 9,978
absolute change [TJ] 4,475 4,426 4,435 4,425 4,488 4,234 4,258 4,024 4,171 4,346
relative change [%] 39 38 35 36 36 33 34 42 42 44
Unit 2010
Submission 2013 [TJ] 14,449
Submission 2012 [TJ] 10,165
absolute change [TJ] 4,284
relative change [%] 42

EF & IEF: Where (implied) emission factors for mopeds remain unchanged compared to submission 2012, motorcycle (I)EF for NH3, NMVOC, NOx and CO were broadly revised within TREMOD. - Due to the number of (I)EFs effected, it is not possible to present old and revised values in a proper way.

For pollutant specific information on qualitative and quantitative impacts on 1990 and 2010 emission estimates see chapter 11. Recalculations and the following chapters.

Uncertainties

Uncertainty estimates for activity data of mobile sources derive from research project FKZ 360 16 023: "Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland". For detailled information, please refer to the project's final report here (German version only!)

Uncertainty estimates for emission factors for all 1.A.3.b sub-categories were compiled during the PAREST research project. Here, the final report has not yet been published.

Planned improvements

At the moment, no category specific improvements are planned.

FAQs


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