1.A.3.b.iii Exhaust Emissions from HDV

Last updated on 10 Dec 2013 11:53 (cf. Authors)

Short description

In sub-categories 1.A.3.b iii - Road transport: Heavy duty vehicles emissions from fuel combustion in Heavy Duty Vehicles (HDVs) are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Source for (by1)
1.A.3.b iii Heavy Duty Vehicles (incl. Buses) T22, T3 NS CS NOx (L/T), PM2.5 (L/T), PM10 (T)

1 T = key source by Trend / L = key source by Level
2 T2: only for petroleum where activity data exist only on tier2 level

Method

Activity data

LKW.PNG

Table: Annual fuel consumption of trucks and lorries, in [TJ]

Unit 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Diesel oil TJ 412,472 451,893 502,258 525,686 548,492 573,257 567,371 583,761 620,779 668,627
Biodiesel TJ 0 0 0 0 0 894 1,203 2,176 2,477 3,273
Total TJ 412,472 451,893 502,258 525,686 548,492 574,151 568,575 585,938 623,256 671,900
Unit 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Diesel oil TJ 677,678 631,835 610,948 583,894 560,702 525,482 540,560 522,812 529,957 516,705
Biodiesel TJ 7,508 9,638 11,304 16,216 19,586 34,991 65,027 69,726 52,578 41,420
Total TJ 685,185 641,473 622,252 600,110 580,288 560,473 605,587 592,539 582,535 558,124
Unit 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Diesel oil TJ 561,199 569,454
Biodiesel TJ 42,706 39,591
Total TJ 603,904 609,045
bus.PNG

Table: Annual fuel consumption of buses, in [TJ]

Unit 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Diesel oil TJ 62,591 55,151 59,929 62,883 61,200 62,816 62,495 62,028 63,180 63,928
Biodiesel TJ 0 0 0 0 0 98 133 231 252 313
Petroleum TJ 0 0 0 473 559 610 638 357 637 637
CNG TJ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Total TJ 62,591 55,151 59,929 63,356 61,759 63,524 63,266 62,616 64,069 64,878
Unit 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Diesel oil TJ 63,177 58,456 54,884 50,648 48,449 46,437 45,101 41,228 41,304 44,966
Biodiesel TJ 700 892 1,015 1,407 1,692 3,092 5,425 5,498 4,098 3,605
Petroleum TJ 414 471 472 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CNG TJ 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,878 1,214 1,135 1,088
Total TJ 64,291 59,819 56,371 52,055 50,141 49,530 52,405 47,940 46,537 49,659
Unit 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Diesel oil TJ 45,810 43,326
Biodiesel TJ 3,486 3,012
Petroleum TJ 0 0
CNG TJ 1,672 1,603
Total TJ 50,967 47,942

For information on mileage, please refer to sub-chapters on emissions from tyre & brake wear and road abrasion.

Emission factors

Emissions factors for exhaust emissions from road transport are taken from the 'Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport' (HBEFA, version 3.1) where they are provided on a tier3 level mostly and processed within the TREMOD software used by the party. Therefore, it is not possible to display them in a clear and comprehendible table. - For further information, please see the Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport and the TREMOD software.

Trend discussion for Key Categories

NFR 1.A.3.b iii - Exhaust emissions from heavy duty vehicles is key source for emissions of

  • NOx regarding level and trend,
  • PM2.5 regarding level and PM10 regarding level and trend.

Nitrogen oxides (NOx)

Until 2005, NOx emissions followed mileage and fuel consumption. Since 2006, in contrast to nearly unchanged fuel consumption, emissions have decreased due to controlled catalytic-converter use and engine improvements resulting from continual tightening of emissions laws.

Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) and carbon monoxide (CO)

Since the early 1990s, exhaust emissions of NMVOC and carbon monoxide have decreased due to catalytic-converter use and engine improvements resulting from ongoing tightening of emissions laws and improved fuel quality.

Ammonia (NH3) and sulphur dioxide (SO2)

As for the entire road transport sector, the trends for sulphur dioxide (SO2) and ammonia (NH3) exhaust emissions from heavy duty vehicles show charcteristics different from those shown above: Here, the strong dependence on increasing fuel qualities (sulphur content) leads to an cascaded downward trend of SO2 emissions , influenced only slightly by increases in fuel consumption and mileage. For ammonia emissions the increasing use of catalytic converters in gasoline driven cars in the 1990s lead to a steep increase whereas both the technical development of the converters and the ongoing shift from gasoline to diesel cars resulted in decreasing emissions in the following years.

Particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10, and TSP)

As for all reported exhaust PM emissions from mobile diesel vehicles the party assumes that nearly all particles emitted are within the PM2.5 range, resulting in similar emission values for PM2.5, PM10 , and TSP.

Recalculations

Recalculations were carried out due to a regular revision of the TREMOD software as well the CSE data warehouse. Compared to submission 2012, the emissions inventory was revised from a tier1 approach to tier3 regarding LPG and CNG used in buses.

AD: Changes in data result mostly from reallocations of consumption shares between the different vehicle types and classes with over-all sums remaining nearly unchanged. From 2006 onwards, the use of CNG in buses is included for te first time. - Furthermore, changes 2010 data also result also from revision of the National Energy Balance.

Table: Revision of fuel consumption data for trucks and Lorries

Unit 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Submission 2013 TJ 412,472 451,893 502,258 525,686 548,492 574,151 568,575 585,938 623,256 671,900
Submission 2012 [TJ] 411,277 450,425 500,841 524,077 547,260 572,781 567,055 584,424 621,693 670,253
absolute change [TJ] 1,196 1,468 1,417 1,608 1,232 1,371 1,519 1,514 1,563 1,648
relative change [%] 0.29 0.33 0.28 0.31 0.23 0.24 0.27 0.26 0.25 0.25
Unit 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Submission 2013 TJ 685,185 641,473 622,252 600,110 580,288 560,473 605,587 592,539 582,535 558,124
Submission 2012 [TJ] 683,436 639,574 620,181 598,107 578,030 557,339 603,797 596,642 590,014 562,829
absolute change [TJ] 1,749 1,899 2,070 2,003 2,258 3,134 1,789 -4,103 -7,479 -4,705
relative change [%] 0.26 0.30 0.33 0.33 0.39 0.56 0.30 -0.69 -1.27 -0.84
Unit 2010
Submission 2013 TJ 603,904
Submission 2012 [TJ] 609,939
absolute change [TJ] -6,035
relative change [%] -0.99

Table: Revision of fuel consumption data for buses

Unit 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Submission 2013 [TJ] 62,591 55,151 59,929 63,356 61,759 63,524 63,266 62,616 64,069 64,878
Submission 2012 [TJ] 62,967 55,629 60,303 63,750 61,886 63,738 63,555 62,869 64,328 65,090
absolute change [TJ] -376 -478 -374 -394 -128 -214 -289 -253 -259 -212
relative change [%] -0.60 -0.86 -0.62 -0.62 -0.21 -0.34 -0.46 -0.40 -0.40 -0.32
Unit 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Submission 2013 [TJ] 64,291 59,819 56,371 52,055 50,141 49,530 52,405 47,940 46,537 49,659
Submission 2012 [TJ] 64,530 60,026 56,544 52,046 50,003 49,198 50,892 47,647 46,510 49,660
absolute change [TJ] -239 -208 -173 8 138 332 1,513 293 27 -1
relative change [%] -0.37 -0.35 -0.31 0.02 0.28 0.67 2.97 0.62 0.06 0.00
Unit 2010
Submission 2013 [TJ] 50,967
Submission 2012 [TJ] 50,313
absolute change [TJ] 654
relative change [%] 1.30

EF & IEF: TREMOD implied emission factors were revised only slightly for the latest years due to an updated HDV fleet structure within the model. In addition, from 2006 onwards, new tier3 EF were implemendet for CNG used in buses. - Due to the number of EFs effected, it is not possible to present old and revised values in a proper way.

For pollutant specific information on qualitative and quantitative impacts on 1990 and 2010 emission estimates see chapter 11. Recalculations and the following chapters.

Uncertainties

Uncertainty estimates for activity data of mobile sources derive from research project FKZ 360 16 023: "Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland". For detailled information, please refer to the project's final report here (German version only!)

Uncertainty estimates for emission factors for all 1.A.3.b sub-categories were compiled during the PAREST research project. Here, the final report has not yet been published.

Planned improvements

At the moment, no category specific improvements are planned.

FAQs


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