1.A.3.b.i Exhaust Emissions From Passenger Cars

Last updated on 10 Dec 2013 11:53 (cf. Authors)

Short description

In sub-categories 1.A.3.b i - Road transport: Passenger cars emissions from fuel combustion in Passenger Cars (PCs) are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Source for (by1)
1.A.3.b i Passenger Cars T12, T3 NS CS NOx (L/T), NMVOC (L/T), CO (L/T), PM2.5 & PM10 (L/T)

1 T = key source by Trend / L = key source by Level
2 T1: only for natural gas where activity data exist only on tier1 level

Method

For all fuels despite natural gas, emissions are calculated within TREMOD, using a tier3 approach.
AD for natural gas is not yet implemented within TREMOD. Hence, emissions have been calculated separately using a tier1 approach.

Detailed information on the methods applied is provided in the main chapter on 1.A.3.b - Road Transport.

Activity data

Table: Annual passenger car fuel consumption, in [TJ]

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Diesel oil 237,993 250,182 257,849 277,110 273,524 273,823 275,322 268,829 268,226 288,688
Gasoline 1,284,554 1,288,348 1,302,535 1,311,517 1,245,524 1,268,780 1,268,344 1,265,509 1,268,521 1,267,833
LPG 138 137 229 184 184 138 115 106 106 100
CNG 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Biodiesel 0 0 0 0 0 427 584 1,002 1,070 1,413
Bio-Ethanol 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Diesel oil 289,341 325,443 354,328 358,211 414,445 419,428 411,927 425,082 445,073 466,908
Gasoline 1,204,607 1,168,000 1,134,993 1,079,098 1,043,096 963,428 903,034 868,942 830,687 806,160
LPG 94 569 607 694 1,887 2,357 4,450 8,686 15,336 23,398
CNG 0 0 0 0 0 2,843 2,676 2,321 3,099 3,533
Biodiesel 3,205 4,964 6,556 9,948 14,477 27,929 49,553 56,692 44,156 37,428
Bio-Ethanol 0 0 0 0 1,112 6,618 13,017 11,737 15,882 23,032
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Diesel oil 475,645 500,680
Gasoline 768,981 765,712
LPG 21,417 23,392
CNG 5,970 6,584
Biodiesel 36,195 34,809
Bio-Ethanol 29,711 31,443

remark: entire time series 1990-2010 revised compared to submission 2012 (see recalculations below)

For information on mileage, please refer to sub-chapters on emissions from tyre & brake wear and road abrasion.

Emission factors

Emissions factors for exhaust emissions from road transport are taken from the 'Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport' (HBEFA, version 3.1) where they are provided on a tier3 level mostly and processed within the TREMOD software used by the party. Therefore, it is not possible to display them in a clear and comprehendible table. - For further information, please see the Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport and the TREMOD software.

Trend discussion for Key Categories

NFR 1.A.3.b i - Exhaust emissions from passenger cars is key source for emissions of

  • NH3 regarding level and trend,
  • NOx regarding level and trend,
  • NMVOC regarding level and trend,
  • CO regarding level and trend,
  • PM2.5 and PM10 regarding level and trend

Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and carbon monoxide (CO)

Since 1990, exhaust emissions of nitrogen oxides, NMVOC, and carbon monoxide have decreased sharply due to catalytic-converter use and engine improvements resulting from ongoing tightening of emissions laws and improved fuel quality.

Ammonia (NH3) and sulphur dioxide (SO2 )

As for the entire road transport sector, the trends for sulphur dioxide (SO2) and ammonia (NH3) exhaust emissions from passenger cars show charcteristics very different from those shown above: Here, the strong dependence on increasing fuel qualities (sulphur content) leads to an cascaded downward trend of SO2 emissions , influenced only slightly by increases in fuel consumption and mileage. For ammonia emissions the increasing use of catalytic converters in gasoline driven cars in the 1990s lead to a steep increase whereas both the technical development of the converters and the ongoing shift from gasoline to diesel cars resulted in decreasing emissions in the following years.

Particulate Matter (PM2.5, PM10, and TSP)

(from fuel combustion only; no wear/abrasion included)

Starting in the middle of the 1990s, a so-called "diesel boom" began, leading to a switch from gasoline to diesel powered passenger cars. As the newly registered diesel cars had to meet the EURO2 standard (in force since 1996/'97) with a PM limit value less than half the EURO1 value, the growing diesel consumption was overcompensated qickly by the mitigation technologies implemented due to the new EURO norm. During the following years, new EURO norms came into force. With the still ongoing "diesel boom" those norms led to a stabilisation (EURO3, 2000/'01) of emissions and to another strong decrease of PM emissions (EURO4, 2005/'06), respectively. Over-all, the increased consumption of diesel in passenger cars was overastimated by the implemented mitigation technologies. The table below shows the evolution of the limit value for particle emissions from passenger cars with diesel engines.

Table: EURO norms and their effect on limit values of PM emissions from diesel passenger cars

exhaust emission standard (EURO norm) Euro 1 Euro 2 Euro 3 Euro 4 Euro 5 Euro 6
in force for type approval since: 1 Jul 1992 1 Jan 1996 1 Jan 2000 1 Jan 2005 1 Sep 2009 1 Sep 2014
in force for initial registration since 1 Jan 1993 1 Jan 1997 1 Jan 2001 1 Jan 2006 1 Jan 2011 1 Jan 2015
resulting PM limit value in [mg/km] 180 80/1001 50 25 5 5

1 for direct injection engines

Recalculations

Recalculations were carried out due to a regular revision of the TREMOD software as well the CSE data warehouse. Compared to submission 2012, the inventory, for the first time, includes PM emissions from the combustion of gasoline and bioethanol. In addition, the emissions inventory was revised from a tier1 approach to tier3 for LPG and CNG used in road transport.

AD: Activity data were revised within the TREMOD model used by the inventory compiler as well as in the CSE data warehouse. Here, changes in data fore 1990 - 2008 result mostly from reallocations of consumption shares between the different vehicle types and classes with over-all sums remaining nearly unchanged whereas changes in 2009 data result from a revised Energy Balance.

Table: Revised diesel oil consumption data

Unit 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Submission 2013 [TJ] 237,993 250,182 257,849 277,110 273,524 273,823 275,322 268,829 268,226 288,688
Submission 2012 [TJ] 238,741 251,070 258,764 278,154 274,460 274,788 276,331 269,841 269,254 289,820
absolute change [TJ] -748 -888 -915 -1,043 -937 -965 -1,010 -1,012 -1,028 -1,132
relative change [%] -0.31 -0.35 -0.35 -0.38 -0.34 -0.35 -0.37 -0.38 -0.38 -0.39
Unit 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Submission 2013 [TJ] 289,341 325,443 354,328 358,211 414,445 419,428 411,927 425,082 445,073 466,908
Submission 2012 [TJ] 290,517 326,775 355,828 359,791 416,359 420,978 412,360 424,978 442,390 462,132
absolute change [TJ] -1,177 -1,332 -1,500 -1,580 -1,914 -1,551 -433 104 2,683 4,776
relative change [%] -0.40 -0.41 -0.42 -0.44 -0.46 -0.37 -0.11 0.02 0.61 1.03
Unit 2010
Submission 2013 [TJ] 475,645
Submission 2012 [TJ] 469,085
absolute change [TJ] 6,560
relative change [%] 1.40

Table: Revised gasoline consumption data

Unit 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Submission 2013 [TJ] 1,284,554 1,288,348 1,302,535 1,311,517 1,245,524 1,268,780 1,268,344 1,265,509 1,268,521 1,267,833
Submission 2012 [TJ] 1,290,286 1,293,712 1,307,632 1,316,673 1,249,789 1,273,250 1,272,995 1,270,273 1,273,384 1,272,804
absolute change [TJ] -5,731 -5,364 -5,097 -5,156 -4,265 -4,470 -4,651 -4,764 -4,864 -4,971
relative change [%] -0.44 -0.41 -0.39 -0.39 -0.34 -0.35 -0.37 -0.38 -0.38 -0.39
Unit 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Submission 2013 [TJ] 1,204,607 1,168,000 1,134,993 1,079,098 1,043,096 963,428 903,034 868,942 830,687 806,160
Submission 2012 [TJ] 1,209,505 1,172,805 1,139,824 1,083,886 1,047,967 968,038 907,241 872,803 834,545 810,087
absolute change [TJ] -4,898 -4,805 -4,831 -4,788 -4,871 -4,611 -4,206 -3,860 -3,858 -3,927
relative change [%] -0.40 -0.41 -0.42 -0.44 -0.46 -0.48 -0.46 -0.44 -0.46 -0.48
Unit 2010
Submission 2013 [TJ] 768,981
Submission 2012 [TJ] 773,408
absolute change [TJ] -4,427
relative change [%] -0.57

Table: Revision of LPG consumption data

Unit 1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Submission 2013 [TJ] 138 138 94 569 607 694 1,887 2,357 4,450 8,686 15,336 23,398 21,417
Submission 2012 [TJ] 138 138 95 570 608 695 1,888 2,358 4,606 8,943 15,653 23,843 21,836
absolute change [TJ] 0 0 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -156 -257 -317 -445 -419
relative change [%] 0.00 0.00 -1.05 -0.18 -0.16 -0.14 -0.05 -0.04 -3.38 -2.88 -2.02 -1.87 -1.92

Table: Revision of CNG consumption data

Unit 1990-2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Submission 2013 [TJ] NO 2,843 2,676 2,321 3,099 3,533 5,970
Submission 2012 [TJ] NO 2,843 5,211 4,089 4,882 5,300 9,742
absolute change [TJ] - 0 -2,535 -1,768 -1,783 -1,767 -3,772
relative change [%] - 0.00 -48.65 -43.23 -36.52 -33.33 -38.72

Table: Revision of biodiesel consumption data

Unit 1990-1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Submission 2013 [TJ] NO 427 584 1,002 1,070 1,413
Submission 2012 [TJ] NO 429 586 1,006 1,074 1,419
absolute change [TJ] - -2 -2 -4 -4 -6
relative change [%] - -0.35 -0.37 -0.37 -0.38 -0.39
Unit 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Submission 2013 [TJ] 3,205 4,964 6,556 9,948 14,477 27,929 49,553 56,692 44,156 37,428
Submission 2012 [TJ] 3,218 4,985 6,583 9,992 14,544 28,058 49,636 56,526 43,802 37,048
absolute change [TJ] -13 -20 -28 -44 -67 -129 -83 167 355 380
relative change [%] -0.40 -0.41 -0.42 -0.44 -0.46 -0.46 -0.17 0.30 0.81 1.02
Unit 2010
Submission 2013 [TJ] 36,195
Submission 2012 [TJ] 36,471
absolute change [TJ] -276
relative change [%] -0.76

Table: Revision of bioethanol consumption data

Unit 1990-2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Submission 2013 [TJ] NO 1,112 6,618 13,017 11,737 15,882 23,032 29,711
Submission 2012 [TJ] NO 1,118 6,650 13,078 11,793 16,012 23,150 29,680
absolute change [TJ] - -5 -32 -61 -56 -130 -118 31
relative change [%] - -0.47 -0.48 -0.46 -0.47 -0.81 -0.51 0.10

EF & IEF: TREMOD implied emission factors were revised only slightly for the latest years due to an updated PC fleet structure within the model. In addition, new tier3 EF were implemendet for CNG and LPG. - Due to the number of EFs effected, it is not possible to present old and revised values in a proper way.

For pollutant specific information on qualitative and quantitative impacts on 1990 and 2010 emission estimates see chapter 11. Recalculations and the following chapters.

Uncertainties

Uncertainty estimates for activity data of mobile sources derive from research project FKZ 360 16 023: "Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland". For detailled information, please refer to the project's final report here (German version only!)

Uncertainty estimates for emission factors for all 1.A.3.b sub-categories were compiled during the PAREST research project. Here, the final report has not yet been published.

Planned improvements

At the moment, due to lack of information consumptions of LPG and CNG and resulting emissions are assigned to passenger cars only. Here, a more realistic breakdown will be implemented as soon as data is available.

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