1.A.3.b.vi Emissions from Tyre and Brake Wear

Last updated on 10 Dec 2013 11:53 (cf. Authors)

Short description

In sub-categories 1.A.3.b vi - Road transport: Automobile tyre and brake wear emissions from automobile tyre and brake wear in RT are reported. Therefore, these sub-category is an important source for a) particle emissions and b) emissions of heavy metals, POPs etc. included in these particles.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Source for (by1)
1.A.3.b vi Automobile tyre and brake wear T3 NS CS PM2.5 (L), PM10 (L/T), TSP (L), Pb (L/T)

1 T = key source by Trend / L = key source by Level

Method

Activity Data

For detailed mileage data, please see superordinate chapter.

Emission factors

Emission factors used for 2011 estimates

Material Tyre Wear Brake Wear
Vehicle type PCs LDVs HDVs Buses Two-wheelers PCs LDVs HDVs Buses Two-wheelers
Particulate Matter [mg/km]
PM2.5 4.49 7.10 18.90 18.90 1.93 2.93 4.56 12.74 12.74 1.44
PM10 6.40 10.10 27.00 24.30 2.80 7.35 11.47 32.00 28.80 3.63
TSP 10.70 16.90 45.00 45.00 4.60 7.50 11.70 32.65 32.65 3.70
Heavy Metals [µg/km]
Priority HM
Pb 1.31 2.18 8.70 7.25 0.56 120.00 249.00 12.00 12.00 51.21
Hg 0.002 0.003 0.012 0.010 0.001 0.00 0.00 1.68 1.68 0.00
Cd 0.18 0.30 1.20 1.00 0.08 0.15 0.32 0.00 0.00 0.07
Other HM
As 0.14 0.24 0.96 0.80 0.06 0.13 0.26 2.81 2.81 0.05
Cr 0.16 0.27 1.08 0.90 0.07 1.82 3.77 361.80 361.80 0.80
Cu 0.25 0.42 1.68 1.40 0.11 1,588 3,289 15,477 15,477 4,065
Ni 0.16 0.27 1.08 0.90 0.07 3.36 6.96 22.45 22.45 1.43
Se 1.80 3.00 12.00 10.00 0.80 0.28 0.58 1.34 1.34 0.12
Zn 1,035.00 1,725 11,700 9,750 443 512 1,061 620 620 218
POPs [µg/km]
PCDD/F NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
PAH
B[a]P 0.03 0.05 0.13 0.12 0.01 NA NA NA NA NA
B[b]F 0.04 0.06 0.16 0.14 0.02 NA NA NA NA NA
B[k]F IE IE IE IE IE NA NA NA NA NA
I[1,2,3-cd]P 0.02 0.02 0.08 0.07 0.01 NA NA NA NA NA
∑ PAHs 0.09 0.14 0.38 0.34 0.04 NA NA NA NA NA

Trend discussion for Key Categories

(emissions from wear/abrasion only; no fuel combustion included)

NFR 1.A.3.b vi - Emissions from Tyre and Brake Wear is key source for emissions of

  • PM2.5 regarding level,
  • PM10 regarding level and trend,
  • TSP regarding level, and
  • Lead (Pb) regarding level and trend.

All reported emissons from tyre and brake wear are connected directly to the mileage driven by the road vehicles covered.

Particulate Matter - PM2.5, PM10 & TSP

Priority Heavy Metals

The emissions of these priority heavy metals are linked directly to the trend of mileage.
Here, lead emissions result mostly from brake wear (> 90% of over all emissions), whereas cadmium emissions result from both tyre & brake wear.

Recalculations

Recalculations were carried out due to a regular the revision of the TREMOD software, resulting in slight changes in mileage data for 2009 and 2010.
In contrast to this revision of activity data, emission factors remain unchanged compared to submission 2012 (see superordinate chapter).

For pollutant specific information on qualitative and quantitative impacts on 1990 and 2009 emission estimates see chapter 11. Recalculations and the following chapters.

Uncertainties

Uncertainty estimates for activity data of mobile sources derive from research project FKZ 360 16 023: "Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland". For detailled information, please refer to the project's final report here (German version only!)

Uncertainty estimates for emission factors were compiled during the PAREST research project. Here, the final report has not yet been published.

Planned improvements

At the moment, no category specific improvements are planned.

FAQs


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